CBT stands for cognitive behavioural therapy and was devised by Aaron beck during the 1960's and 1970's. Beck put forth the argument that our thoughts, feelings and behaviours are all connected. The counsellor must get a good understanding of what is the client's problem through discussion with the client. After that they can, through a collaborative process between client and counsellor, investigate and evaluate any negative thoughts the client is having and clarify how to modify those thoughts so the client's negative feelings become less intense and they can lead a productive life. As beck points out that CBT needs to be adapted to the specific problem of the client and this is not a "cookbook" therapy.
CBT has a lot of studies to support its use for many conditions such as depression, anxiety, phobias etc and has been developed through research since its inception to the present day.
Logotherapy, was devised by Victor Frankl in Austria which he first outlined in his book "man's search for meaning". Frankl put a lot of emphasis on the individual's ability to make a decision in their life in spite of hard conditions, which seem to determine their behaviour. Frankl put emphasis on the idea that the individual is not determined by their situation or condition but has the freedom to choose their path. Frankl stated that despair can be explained as a mathematical equation:
D = S - M which means despair is suffering without meaning. As long as an individual cannot find any meaning in their suffering, he or she will be prone to despair or suicide. When the individual sees meaning in their suffering they can mould their predicament into an accomplishment on the human level, they can turn their tragedies into a personal triumph. With Logotherapy the counsellor by means of different techniques will help the individual to find meaning in their distress and give the them the capability to overcome the hard stages of life they find themselves in.
ACT stand for acceptance and commitment therapy. It was devised and continues to be developed by Steven Hayes and other researchers. It is supported by a wealth of evidence and research even though it is relatively new therapy. ACT has similarities to CBT and Logotherapy but has its on unique style and goals. A good metaphor for the goal of act would be if you would imagine a strong monster and yourself, each one has one end of a rope and in between you both there is a bottomless pit. You are pulling backward as hard as you can but the monster keeps pulling you ever closer to the pit. What should you do? Pull harder? The harder you pull, the harder the monster pulls! So what now? Drop the rope! When the rope is dropped the monster is still there but now you don't have to struggle with it and can do something more useful. The counsellor using ACT gives the individual the tools and ability to move forward in life even when they have to deal with their own monster which is pulling them i.e. sever cognitive and emotional issues.
You Cannot Fit a Square Peg in a
You will find many different types of counsellors who are proficient in a certain
type of counselling but that does not mean that they are right for you! In fact going
to a certain type of counsellor with your problem might be like trying to fit a square
into a round hole. Each different type of counselling will be more helpful for a certain
form of a problem but just like a taxi will not help someone to get to their destination at sea and the traveller would
instead need a boat (even though both are used for transporting), so to not every form of counselling is best suited to every problem or person, to help them reach where they want to be. At Tikvah we try to see which style of counselling will help for the client's needs and issues. Below are some of the styles we use and are experienced in:
Transactional Analysis (TA) was devised by Eric Bernie. TA is theory of an explanation of human relationships it explains the relationships people have, showing what causes disengagement between two people. TA is a type of psychology for understanding, changing and predicting human behaviour. TA describes that within our interactions we will act as a Parent or adult or child with a stereo type pattern of behaviour which people do, day after day, mostly not realising that they are doing it. TA also believes that our environment has affected our psyche to act in a certain way unless we make a conscious decision to change it. With counselling using TA the individual is given the skills to change their negative behavioural pattern.